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Update 1.11.16 – SANS ICS Team Connects Dots

Updating the blog entry to bring attention
to the recent analysis published by Mike Assante from the SANS ICS
team.

“After analyzing the
information that has been made available by affected power
companies, researchers, and the media it is clear that cyber attacks
were directly responsible for power outages in Ukraine. The SANS ICS
team has been coordinating ongoing discussions and providing
analysis across multiple international community members and
companies. We assess with high confidence based on company
statements, media reports, and first-hand analysis that the incident
was due to a coordinated intentional attack.”

Read the full SANS post here – and see below for
iSIGHT

iSIGHT Partners Analyst
Comment

The SANS ICS blog confirms
conclusions previously reached by iSIGHT regarding the nature of the
Ukrainian attacks (specifically the role of destructive malware and
phone disruption) and attribution to Sandworm Team. iSIGHT Partners
believes this incident is a milestone because it is the first major
cyber attack to substantially affect the civilian population and
because of the overwhelming importance of the grid to multiple
reliant sectors. Furthermore, Sandworm Team’s previous interest in
US and European critical systems underscores the threat they pose
(see below for more on Sandworm Team.)

Sandworm Team – Historical Targeting of
Ukraine and Interest in SCADA Systems

Since last week, iSIGHT Partners has
worked to provide details on the power outage in Ukraine to our
global customers. We have analyzed the forensic evidence we have
been able to obtain from the region, contextualizing it within our
knowledge of cyber espionage actors. Many details of the event
remain unknown, and given the nature of the incident, especially the
use of destructive malware, we do not anticipate every detail will
be exposed.

However, we have linked
Sandworm Team to the incident, principally based on BlackEnergy 3,
the malware that has become their calling card.

iSiGHT Partners has tracked Sandworm Team
for some time – and we publicly reported on some of their activities
in October 2014, when we discovered their use of
a zero-day exploit, CVE-2014-4114. In that campaign, we saw
targeting of Ukrainian government officials, members of the EU and
NATO. Shortly after releasing information on their espionage
operations, our friends at TrendMicro found evidence that the operators
were not only conducting classic strategic espionage but targeting SCADA systems as well. Evidence of
this accumulated, and iSIGHT Partners released a follow-up blog were we assessed that activity
was reconnaissance for attack – a preparation for cyber attack to be
carried out in the long term. ICS-CERT released a separate advisory as well.

Sandworm Team Activity – Late 2014 to
Current Day

Sandworm Team went to
ground shortly after being exposed in October of 2014, and malware
with Dune references (the genesis for the ‘Sandworm’ moniker) which
we had previously used to track them disappeared entirely. However,
the unique malware variant, BlackEnergy 3, reemerged in Ukraine
early in 2015, where we had first found Sandworm Team. Throughout
2015 we saw increased intrusion activity using BlackEnergy 3. We
warned our clients of new features suggesting an increased focus on
European targets – though verification of targets was not possible
at the time. Additionally, we warned our customers about the
targeting of both media and regional power authorities in the
Ukraine, sectors later affected by cyber attacks. Some of this
information was recently shared by the folks at ESET, who have also been following
Sandworm Team very closely for quite some time.

On the Ukrainian Power Authority
Incidents

Last week iSIGHT’s sources
provided us with the same KillDisk malware published by Rob Lee of SANS and Dragos Security. As ESET
has, we place this malware within the greater context of activity
tied to BlackEnergy 3, which we believe is Sandworm Team. We believe
this KillDisk malware is related to the destructive malware
leveraged during Ukrainian elections in October. At the time, CERT-UA
connected that incident to BlackEnergy 3
. Symantec has since
verified those claims. Furthermore, iSIGHT’s
own sources indicate that BlackEnergy 3 malware was deployed on at
least one of the Ukrainian power systems affected by KillDisk.

iSIGHT Partners is still collecting
information on the mechanics of the power outage and what role the
KillDisk malware played in the greater event. We cannot confirm that
the KillDisk malware caused the outage. It may have been used
following steps to manipulate power in order to impede restoration
efforts or operator visibility. It is noteworthy that technical
support numbers associated with the power authorities were allegedly
flooded with calls, which may have been an effort to further
overwhelm responders. On their official website, the Ukrainian
security service, SBU, made this claim.

Outlook

A
cyber attack of this nature is a milestone -although a predictable
one. The aggressive nature of Sandworm Team’s previous activity in
Europe and the United States exposed their interest in targeting
critical systems and indicated preparation for cyber attack.
Targeting of critical entities in Ukraine throughout 2015, during a
time of war, further presaged a desire to disrupt
infrastructure.

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