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Gaining insight into the files being executed on your system is a
great first step towards improved visibility on your endpoints. Taking
this a step further, centrally storing logs of file execution data so
they can be used for detection and hunting provides an excellent
opportunity to find evil on your network.
A SIEM, and to some degree your entire security monitoring program,
is only as good as the data you are collecting. Process execution data
is incredibly valuable for enabling a multitude of detection and
hunting scenarios, which means it’s something you should consider
collecting and storing. Customers of our Threat Analytics Platform (TAP) cloud-based SIEM
solution frequently ask us about tools that can help them collect this
type of file execution data. For Windows systems, our detection team
typically recommends the Sysinternals
Sysmon tool since it provides excellent visibility into the type
of files that are being executed on your Windows machines and both
integrates and scales well when properly deployed.
In this post, I’m going to talk about a lesser-known feature of the
Linux architecture called the Integrity Measurement Architecture
(IMA). When coupled with auditd, IMA will allow you to achieve on
Linux hosts a similar executable logging capability as the Sysmon tool
The Integrity Measurement Architecture is a component of the Linux
kernel’s integrity subsystem. For this post, we’re going to focus on a
minimum baseline configuration and policy in order to get file
execution logs into a format that can be ingested by your SIEM. File
execution logs are available in various forms and locations in Linux,
but the logs we will be generating contain a wealth of data in one
location that would otherwise need to be gathered from several
disparate sources or may have not have been available at all.
First, you should familiarize yourself with documentation for your
Linux distribution to verify whether the IMA kernel compilation
options are enabled by default. The IMA subsystem has been part of the
mainline kernel since version 2.6.30, but not every distribution
compiles their kernel with these options enabled. All of the examples
in this post were tested on Ubuntu 16.04.1 LTS, as the IMA kernel
options are enabled by default in this distribution.
Instructions for compiling a kernel with these options enabled are
listed in this Integrity
Measurement Architecture documentation. Documentation for auditd
can be found here.
The reason we need the auditd daemon is because it is the userspace
component for Linux’s auditing platform and it is responsible for
writing all the resulting audit records to disk. Without auditd, the
logs for the events we will be generating would never get written out
goals of the IMA subsystem are “to detect if files have been
accidentally or maliciously altered, both remotely and locally,
appraise a file’s measurement against a ‘good’ value stored as an
extended attribute, and enforce local file integrity.” To achieve
these goals, IMA provides several functions, including:
Collect – “measure” a file before it is accessed. The term
measurement in this context means to grab a hash of the file data,
the hash of some file metadata and the file path, and then store
this data in a runtime measurement list.
Store – add the measurement to a kernel resident list and, if
a hardware Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is present, extend the IMA
Platform Configuration Register (PCR). TPM and PCR are part of an
international standard for dedicated microcontrollers intended to
Attest – if present, use the TPM to sign the IMA PCR value to
allow a remote validation of the measurement list.
Appraise – enforce local validation of a measurement against
a “good” value stored in an extended attribute of the file.
Protect – protect a file’s security extended attributes
(including appraisal hash) against off-line attack.
Collect & Store
Part of the way the appraisal function validates a file is to
calculate a hash value, which just determines how mathematically
unique the file is, and compare this value against a stored “good”
hash value. The specific hash function that IMA uses is a configurable option.
This is effective for locally ensuring integrity of an environment,
but what if we also wanted to compare these measured hash values
against a list of known bad file hashes through an external or
internal blacklist? It could also be the case that runtime integrity
checking on every machine isn’t suitable for your environment.
Generating and storing these logs opens up the possibility for future
investigation as well as centralized detection capabilities if your
organization is ingesting these logs into a single repository.
We can utilize the auditing function of IMA to generate a log every
time IMA measures an executable. When an IMA policy is set to
audit any executable and auditd is running, a log will be
written containing metadata for each executable.
The simplest IMA policy we can write to log all executables looks
audit func=BPRM_CHECK mask=MAY_EXEC
There are several ways to apply this policy to IMA that are detailed
in the IMA documentation. Later versions of systemd will apply a
custom policy located in “/etc/ima/ima-policy”. Placing the single
line policy set forth above in this file will cause systemd to apply
this IMA policy to the system. This version of systemd was included in
It should be noted that the example policy is extremely broad and
will result in a high volume of logs being generated, primarily by
daemons – equivalent to a Windows service – performing routine tasks,
such as systemd. The policy can be further restricted by file magic
values, UID, filesystem mask values and several others, as specified
by the policy documentation.
This policy will produce audit INTEGRITY_RULE logs that look like this:
This gives us several great pieces of information for searching and
correlation in a SIEM: the path of the file that was executed
(kaiten.bin) and the path of its parent (/bin/bash), the PID(8205) and
parent PID(1943) of the executable, the SHA-1 hash
value(48a3171d8f04c09f6d06362d4c4b995eaa97d489) of this file (or
whatever hash value you configured IMA to use), and the UID, GID,
etc., of the user that owned the process. A quick check in VirusTotal
of the hash supplied to us by IMA in this example shows that this is a
of the Kaiten IoT bot.
Once you are generating logs with IMA and auditd, you can send them
to your SIEM using your normal log ingestion process via something
Now that you’re ingesting these logs into your SIEM, there are all
sorts of detection and hunting scenarios available:
- Using rules and ingestion decoration services (services that
add additional metadata to a log at ingestion time) to check hashes
against internal and or external blacklists. For example:
o Lists of hashes
seen in public Linux honeypots
o Lists of samples
seen in previous incidents
- Inspecting the path of the executable for abnormalities. For
o Binaries named as system utilities executing from
unusual locations (/opt/app/sudo, /home/foo/su)
Paths you wouldn’t expect to see with executable files (Executables in
your web app’s image upload directory
executing from hidden directories (/opt/.hidden/foo, /home/user/.hidden/bar)
- Checking specific UIDs and GIDs for unusual execution. For
o Web app user account attempting to use unusual
utilities (top, netstat, su, etc.)
o An account
under an archive service group attempting to execute something out of /tmp
- Checking specific parent executables and processes for unusual
execution. For example:
o Communication broker executing directory traversal
o Apache process executing netcat
Configuration options for both IMA and auditd are extensive so, if
this post is of interest to your organization, I highly recommend
reading the documentation for both IMA and auditd so they can be
further customized to your needs. This post isn’t meant to be an
all-inclusive guide to IMA, but our hope is that it introduces you to
this capability so that you can dive in and make it useful for
improving your visibility into Linux process execution and aid you in
finding more evil in your network.
At L Technology Group, we know technology alone will not protect us from the risks associated with in cyberspace. Hackers, Nation States like Russia and China along with “Bob” in HR opening that email, are all real threats to your organization. Defending against these threats requires a new strategy that incorporates not only technology, but also intelligent personnel who, eats and breaths cybersecurity. Together with proven processes and techniques combines for an advanced next-generation security solution. Since 2008 L Technology Group has develop people, processes and technology to combat the ever changing threat landscape that businesses face day to day.
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