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While not as common as Windows malware, there has been a steady
stream of malware discovered over the years that runs on the OS X
operating system, now rebranded as macOS. February saw three
particularly interesting publications on the topic of macOS malware: a
Cocoa application
that sends system information including
keychain data back to the attacker, a macOS
version of APT28’s Xagent malware
, and a new
Trojan ransomware

In this blog, the FLARE team would like to introduce two small tools
that can aid in the task of reverse engineering Cocoa applications for
macOS. In order to properly introduce these tools, we will lay a bit
of foundation first to introduce the reader to some Apple-specific
topics. Specifically, we will explain how the Objective-C runtime
complicates code analysis in tools such as IDA Pro, and how to find
useful entry points into a Cocoa application’s code where you can
begin analysis.

If you find these topics fascinating or if you want to be better
prepared to investigate macOS malware in your own environment, come
join us for a two-day crash course on this topic that we will be
teaching at Black
Hat Asia
and Black
this year.

Cocoa Application Anatomy

When we use the term “Cocoa application”, we are referring to an
application that is built using the AppKit framework, which belongs to
what Apple refers to as the Cocoa Application Layer. In macOS,
applications are distributed in an application bundle, a directory
structure made to appear as a single file containing executable code
and its associated resources, as illustrated in Figure 1.  

Figure 1: Directory structure of iTerm
application bundle

These bundles can contain a variety of different files, but all
bundles must contain at least two critical files: Info.plist and an
executable file residing in the MacOS folder. The executable file can
be any file with execute permissions, even a python or shell script,
but it is typically a native executable. Mach-O is the native
executable file format for macOS and iOS. The Info.plist file
describes the application bundle, containing critical information the
OS needs in order to properly load it. Plist files can be in one of
three possible formats: XML, JSON, or a proprietary binary format
called bplist. A handy utility named plutil is available in macOS that
allows you to convert between formats, or simply pretty-print a plist
file regardless of its format. The most notable key in the Info.plist
file is the CFBundleExecutable key, which designates the name of the
executable in the MacOS folder that will be executed. Figure 2 shows a
snippet of the pretty-printed output from plutil for the iTerm
application’s Info.plist file.

Figure 2: snippet from iTerm application’s
Info.plist file


Cocoa applications are typically written in Objective-C or Swift.
Swift, the newer of the two languages, has been quickly catching up to
Objective-C in popularity and appears to have overtaken
. Despite this, Objective-C has many years over Swift, which
means the majority of malicious Cocoa applications you will run into
will be written in Objective-C for the time being. Additionally, older
Objective-C APIs tend to be encountered during malware analysis. This
can be due to the age of the malware or for the purpose of backwards
compatibility. Objective-C is a dynamic and reflective programming
language and runtime. Roughly 10 years ago, Objective-C version 2.0
was released, which included major changes to both the language and
the runtime. Where details are concerned, this blog is referring to
version 2.0.

Programs written in Objective-C are transformed into C as part of
the compilation process, making it at least a somewhat comfortable
transition for most reverse engineers. One of the biggest hurdles to
such a transition comes in how methods are called in Objective-C.
Objective-C methods are conceptually similar to C functions; they are
a unit of code that performs a specific task, optionally taking in
parameters and returning a value. However, due to the dynamic nature
of Objective-C, methods are not normally called directly. Instead, a
message is sent to the target object. The name of a method is called a
selector, while the actual function that is executed is called
an implementation. The message specifies a reference to the
selector that is to be invoked along with any method parameters. This
allows for features like “method swizzling,” in which an application
can change the implementation for a given selector. The most common
way in which messages are sent within Objective-C applications is the
objc_msgSend function. Figure 3 provides a small snippet of
Objective-C code that opens a URL in your browser. Figure 4 shows this
same code represented in C.


Figure 3: Objective-C code snippet



Figure 4: Objective-C code represented in C

As you can see, the Objective-C code between the brackets amounts to
a call to objc_msgSend.

Unfortunately, this message sending mechanism causes problems when
trying to follow cross-references for selectors in IDA Pro. While you
can easily see all the cross-references for a given selector from any
location where it is referenced, the implementations themselves are
not called or referenced directly and so there is no easy way to jump
from a selector reference to its implementation or vice-versa. Figure
5 illustrates this problem by showing that the only cross-reference to
an implementation is in the __objc_const section of the executable,
where the runtime stores class member data.

Figure 5: Cross-reference to an implementation

Of course, the information that links these selector references to
their implementations is stored in the executable, and thankfully IDA
Pro can to parse this data for us. In the __objc_const section, a
structure identified by IDA Pro as __objc2_meth has the definition
illustrated in Figure 6.



Figure 6: __objc2_meth structure

The first field of this structure is the selector for the method.
One of the cross-references to this field brings us to the
__objc_selrefs section of the executable where you can find the
selector reference. Following the cross-references of the
selector reference will reveal to us any locations in the code where
the selector is used. The third field of the structure points to the
implementation of the selector, which is the function we want to
analyze. What is left to do is simply use this data to create the
cross-references. The first of the two tools we are introducing is an
IDAPython script named that does just that for
x86_64 Mach-O executable files using Objective-C 2.0. This script is
similar to older IDAPython
scripts released by Zynamics
, however their scripts do not
support the x86_64 architecture. Our script is available along with
all of our other scripts and plugins for IDA Pro from our Github repo
here. For each
Objective-C method that is defined in the executable, patches the instructions that cross-reference
its selector to reference the implementing function itself and creates
a cross-reference from the referencing instruction to the
implementation function. Using this script allows us to easily
transition from a selector’s implementation to its references and
vice-versa, as shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8.

Figure 7: Cross-references added for implementation

Figure 8: View selector’s implementation from
its reference

There is a noteworthy shortcoming to this tool, however. If more
than one class defines a method with the same name, there will only be
one selector present in the executable. For now, the tool ignores
these ambiguous selectors.

Cocoa Applications – Where to Begin Looking?

Another quandary with reverse engineering Cocoa applications, or any
application built with an application framework, is determining where
the framework’s code ends and the author’s code begins. With programs
written in C/C++, the author’s code would typically begin within the
main function of the program. While there are many exceptions to this
rule, this is generally the case. For programs using the Cocoa
Application template in Apple’s IDE, Xcode, the main function simply
performs a tail jump into a function exported by the AppKit framework
named NSApplicationMain, as shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9: A Cocoa application’s main function

So where do we look to find the first lines of code written by the
application’s author that would be executed? The answer to that
question lies within NSApplicationMain. In summary, NSApplicationMain
performs three important steps: constructing the NSApplication object,
loading the main storyboard or nib file, and starting the event loop.
The NSApplication object plays the important role of event and
notification coordinator for the running application.
NSApplicationMain looks for the name of this class in the
NSPrincipalClass key in the Info.plist file of the application bundle.
Xcode simply sets this key to the NSApplication class, but this class
may be subclassed or reimplemented and the key overwritten. A
noteworthy notification that is coordinated by the NSApplication
object is NS‌Application‌Did‌Finish‌Launching‌Notification, which is
designated as the proper time to run any application-specific
initialization code the author may have. To handle this notification,
the application may designate a delegate class that adheres to the
NSApplicationDelegate protocol. In Objective-C, a protocol
fills the role traditionally referred to as an interface in
object-oriented parlance. The relevant method in this protocol for
encapsulating initialization code is the
application‌Did‌Finish‌Launching method. By default, Xcode creates
this delegate class for you and names it AppDelegate. It even defines
an empty applicationDidFinishLaunching method for the application
developer to modify as desired. With all this information in hand, the
best place to look for the initial code of most Cocoa applications is
in a method named applicationDidFinishLaunching, as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10: Search for
applicationDidFinishLaunching method

If you find nothing useful, then fall back to analyzing the main
function. It is important to note that all this information is
specific to apps created using the Cocoa Application template in
Xcode. Cocoa applications do not need to use NSApplicationMain. One
can write their own Cocoa application from scratch, implementing his
or her own version of NSApplicationMain.

Interface Builder and Nib Files

It was previously mentioned that one of the main responsibilities of
NSApplicationMain is to load the main storyboard or nib file. “Nib”
stands for NeXTSTEP Interface Builder, referring to the Interface
Builder application that is a part of Xcode. Interface Builder allows
developers to easily build graphical user interfaces and even wire
their controls to variables and methods within their code using a
graphical interface. As a developer builds GUIs with Interface
Builder, graphs of objects are formed. An object graph is saved in XML
format in a .xib file in the project folder. When the project is
built, each object graph is serialized using the NSKeyedArchiver class
and stored in Apple’s bplist format in a .nib file within the
application bundle, typically under the Resources folder. Xcode writes
the name of the main nib file to the application’s Info.plist file
under the key NSMainNibFile. When an application loads a nib file,
this object hierarchy is unpacked into memory and all the connections
between various GUI windows, menus, controls, variables, and methods
are established. This list of connections includes the connection
between the application delegate and the NSApplication class.
Storyboards were added to macOS in Yosemite. They enable the developer
to lay out all of the application’s various views that will be shown
to the user and specify their relationships. Under the hood, a
storyboard is a directory containing nib files and an accompanying
Info.plist file. The main storyboard directory is designated under the
key NSMainStoryboardFile in the application’s Info.plist file.

This brings us to the other tool we would like to share,, which is available from our Github repo here.
uses ccl_bplist to
decode and deserialize a nib file and print out the list of
connections defined within it.  For each connection, it prints the
label for the connection (typically a method or variable name) and the
source and destination objects’ classes. Each object encoded by
NSKeyedArchiver is assigned a unique numeric identifier value that is
included in the output within enclosed parentheses. For appropriate
GUI elements that have textual data associated with them, such as
button labels, the text is included in the script output within
enclosed brackets. With this information, one can determine the
relationships between the code and the GUI elements. It is even
possible to rewire the application, changing which functions handle
different GUI events. Note that if a nib is not flattened, it will be
represented as a directory that contains nib files and you can run
this tool on the keyedobjects.nib file located within it instead. For
storyboards, you can run this tool on the various nib files present in
the storyboard directory.  Figure 11 shows the output of
when it is used on the MainMenu.nib file from the recently discovered
shown in Figure 12. You may notice that the GUI text in the
tool output does not match the GUI text in the screenshot. In this
case, many of the GUI elements are altered at run-time in the code
illustrated in Figure 13.


Figure 11: output for MacDownloader threat

Figure 12: MacDownloader’s initial window

Figure 13: Code updating the text of buttons

The output from shows that the author used the default
delegate class AppDelegate provided by Xcode. The AppDelegate class
has two instance variables for NSButton objects along with four
instance variables for NSTextField objects. A selector named
btnSearchAdware is connected to the same button with id (49) as the
instance variable btnAction. This is likely an interesting function to
begin analysis.


We hope you have enjoyed this whirlwind tour of reverse engineering
Cocoa applications. If you are interested in getting some more
exposure to macOS internals and analysis tools, reverse engineering
and debugging techniques, and real macOS malware found in the wild,
then come hang out with us at Black Hat this year and learn more!

At L Technology Group, we know technology alone will not protect us from the risks associated with in cyberspace. Hackers, Nation States like Russia and China along with “Bob” in HR opening that email, are all real threats to your organization. Defending against these threats requires a new strategy that incorporates not only technology, but also intelligent personnel who, eats and breaths cybersecurity. Together with proven processes and techniques combines for an advanced next-generation security solution. Since 2008 L Technology Group has develop people, processes and technology to combat the ever changing threat landscape that businesses face day to day.

Call Toll Free (855) 999-6425 for a FREE Consultation from L Technology Group,